PAH concentrations were measured in total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected from six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas from April 2013 to March 2014. The annual average TSP and PAH (especially 5- and 6-ring compounds) concentrations were found to decrease noticeably northwards along both transects. At rural and urban sites, the TSP and PAH concentrations showed clear seasonal variations, with the lower concentrations around the mid-monsoon season and the higher values in the winter season. Meanwhile, at the remote sites (e.g., Nyalam and Zhongba), these pollutants generally remained constant throughout the year but with relatively higher levels during the pre-monsoon season. Both IndP/(IndP + BghiP) and Fla/(Fla + Pyr) ratios suggested that atmospheric PAHs from urban and rural sites were mainly associated with emissions from biomass burning, coal burning and petroleum combustion. However, the contribution of biomass burning increased at remote sites. Similar compositions of PAHs were found at three remote sites located on both sides of the Himalayas (Jomsom, Zhongba, and Nyalam), suggesting that the northern side of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) via long-range atmospheric transport. This work provides a database of PAHs in central Himalayas for further assessing environmental risk of air pollution in the remote regions.
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- Academic Articles
Chen, P., Li, C., Kang, S., Rupakheti, M., Panday, A. K., Yan, F., Li, Q., Zhang, Q., Guo, J., Ji, Z., Rupakheti, D., Luo, W. (2017): Characteristics of Particulate-Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Atmosphere over the Central Himalayas. - Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 17, 12, p. 2942-2954.DOI: http://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2016.09.0385
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- A Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat)